It makes a lot of promises, after all — online anonymity, complete privacy, secure encryption, unrestricted access, and so on. Tor stands for The Onion Router. Usually, your traffic will go through at least three servers: the entry node, middle node, and exit node. The network encrypts your traffic multiple times. Each time it hits a node, it losses a layer of encryption.
Besides encrypting your traffic, Tor will also hide your IP address, replacing it with the address of its servers. The website you access will only see the IP address of the exit node. To put it simply, no. So, it might be possible to assume that countries that ban or make VPNs illegal have the same stance on Tor.
Of course, if you ever use Tor to access illegal content child pornography, drug trades, contract killer websites , you can get in serious trouble with the law. But not all the content on the deep web is of that nature. Security researchers actually found at least Tor nodes that were snooping on user traffic and exposing devices to malware. And the nodes were discovered over a period of just 72 days.
Who knows how many are actually out there. However, the main problem with decentralization is that any cybercriminal can set up a Tor node if they want to. Over the course of a few months, he collected sensitive data — specifically login credentials for around 1, accounts. Obviously, that includes government agencies too. Tor devs themselves made it public that government officials seized control of Tor servers through Operation Onymous.
According to it, the university was actually able to see that the student in question accessed Tor with their WiFi network a few hours before the threats were received. Well, the main issue with that is those regimes will be specifically targeting Tor traffic. Security researchers actually worked for the federal government to find a way to break Tor.
Now, that normally would make sense since VPNs work the same way — the server decrypts the traffic to forward it to the web. But unlike a VPN, anyone can set up a Tor node like we already mentioned. And according to Tor documentation , the exit node can actually see the contents of your message. Another exchange showed that a dev found a vulnerability that would essentially de-anonymize Tor users. The dev suggested keeping the vulnerability an internal matter, yet Roger Dindgledine went ahead and told government agents about the vulnerability after just two days.
So you need to have other people using the network so they blend together. It just means you have extra hassle to deal with when using Tor. If the FBI wants to, they can spy on you without needing any warrants. True, this ruling came into effect after the FBI shut down a child pornography ring, which is definitely a good thing. So yeah, according to the law at least in the US , if you decide to use Tor to protect your privacy, you should actually expect government agencies to start spying on you.
Well, there are only around 6, servers to support them. Simply not enough to go around, so Tor users end up quickly overloading the network. Plus, Tor bounces your traffic between multiple servers, which further contributes to the slow speeds.
That, and the Tor devs themselves say using the Bittorrent protocol over Tor is not a good idea. Because your government might suddenly decide to block access to the Tor network — like Venezuela , China , and Turkey already did. Really, all they have to do is check the current list of Tor nodes , and use routers and firewalls to block them. Specifically websites that use Cloudflare security software since it has a firewall option that blocks Tor traffic.
Tor provides an excellent way to anonymize online activity, but certain limitations, particularly its slow browsing speeds, can be quite limiting for the average Internet user. A VPN will encrypt your online traffic and prevent attackers from monitoring your browsing activity. It is also much faster and easier to use than Tor. Switching your connection between countries is also much easier with a VPN than with Tor.
However, VPNs, like Tor, also have their limitations when it comes to security and privacy, so it is important to understand the VPN threat model. Prior to joining ProtonVPN, Richie spent several years working on tech solutions in the developing world. He joined ProtonVPN to advance the rights of online privacy and freedom. If only ProtonVPN had a browser extension. I only need browser level protection, which is why I use TOR, otherwise I need all traffic to go through my network normally.
Thanks for your article! I have a question. The connection would be encrypted between the Tor browser and the Tor exit, hence what the corporate VPN sees is only encrypted tor traffic. I went over this site and I think you have a lot of good information, great webpage. I just recently started using Tor because of firefox critical error starts often appearing while browsing I feel unsafe so I started using Tor in place of Mozilla firefox. I know this because my site visit in no longer counted.
In what way is ProtonVPN different? Privacy: The ability to live without monitoring by government. Deleting my gmail accounts and dependancy on google. I love this company and its services, happy to endorse it without any incentive to do so. Sign up coming shortly!
Keep up the good work. Your email address will not be published. Leave this field empty. Back to Blog. Support : Show Details Partnership : partners. For all other inquiries: contact protonvpn. Return to protonvpn. Tor is a free, global network that lets you browse the Internet and the dark web anonymously. There are, however, a few things you need to keep in mind to use Tor securely. Is Tor illegal? How to use Tor safely Like with any privacy tool, proper usage is critical.
Tor will encrypt your data as it passes through the Tor network, but the encryption of your traffic between the final Tor relay and your destination site depends upon that website. This protocol establishes an encrypted link between the final Tor relay and your destination website. These plugins can be manipulated into exposing your IP address in ways that Tor cannot prevent. Other apps on your device will still connect normally to the Internet and may expose your real IP address.
You should not maximize the Tor Browser window. You should not open documents downloaded through the Tor Browser while you are online. These documents could contain Internet resources that would reveal your true IP address. If you need to view a. Similarly, you cannot use BitTorrent over Tor. Torrenting will send out your real IP address in the tracker GET request, deanonymizing your torrent and web traffic.
It will also slow down the entire Tor network.
If you allow exit connections, some services that people connect to from your relay will connect back to collect more information about you. For example, some IRC servers connect back to your identd port to record which user made the connection.
Also, users exiting from you might attract the attention of other users on the IRC server, website, etc. Another reason is that groups who scan for open proxies on the Internet have learned that sometimes Tor relays expose their socks port to the world.
We recommend that you bind your socksport to local networks only. In any case, you need to keep up to date with your security. See this article on security for Tor relays for more suggestions. This tells Tor to avoid exiting through that relay. In effect, relays with this flag become non-exits. Please reach out to the bad-relays team so we can sort out the issue. Note: As of Tor 0. Eventually they will replace the old RSA identities, but that will happen in time, to ensure compatibility with older versions.
But there are a few exceptions:. If you open your DirPort, then Tor clients will ask you for a copy of the directory. This probably accounts for most of the difference between your "write" byte count and your "read" byte count. Another minor exception shows up when you operate as an exit node, and you read a few bytes from an exit connection for example, an instant messaging or ssh connection and wrap it up into an entire byte cell for transport through the Tor network.
All of this said, fast Tor relays do use a lot of ram. It is not unusual for a fast exit relay to use MB of memory. All outgoing connections must be allowed, so that each relay can communicate with every other relay. In many jurisdictions, Tor relay operators are legally protected by the same common carrier regulations that prevent internet service providers from being held liable for third-party content that passes through their network.
Exit relays that filter some traffic would likely forfeit those protections. Tor promotes free network access without interference. Exit relays must not filter the traffic that passes through them to the internet. Exit relays found to be filtering traffic will get the BadExit flag once detected. Instead, consider running your exit relay in a commercial facility that is supportive of Tor. Of course, you should avoid keeping any sensitive or personal information on the computer hosting your exit relay.
See our obfs4 setup guide to learn how to set up an obfs4 bridge. For the most in-depth resource on running a relay, see the Relay Setup Guide. If you want to use this feature, you can consult our more detailed guide on the topic. If you do decide to run more than one relay, please set the "MyFamily" config option in the torrc of each relay, listing all the relays comma-separated that are under your control:.
That way, Tor clients will know to avoid using more than one of your relays in a single circuit. The accounting options in the torrc file allow you to specify the maximum amount of bytes your relay uses for a time period. This specifies when the accounting should reset. For instance, to setup a total amount of bytes served for a week that resets every Wednesday at am , you would use:.
This specifies the maximum amount of data your relay will send during an accounting period, and the maximum amount of data your relay will receive during an account period. When the accounting period resets from AccountingStart , then the counters for AccountingMax are reset to 0. It will keep track of how quickly it used its quota in the last period, and choose a random point in the new interval to wake up. This way we avoid having hundreds of relays working at the beginning of each month but none still up by the end.
Just divide your monthly amount by For example, if you have 50 GB to offer each way, you might set your RelayBandwidthRate to KBytes: this way your relay will always be useful for at least half of each day. Tor has partial support for IPv6 and we encourage every relay operator to enable IPv6 functionality in their torrc configuration files when IPv6 connectivity is available.
For the time being Tor will require IPv4 addresses on relays, you can not run a Tor relay on a host with IPv6 addresses only. The parameters assigned in the AccountingMax and BandwidthRate apply to both client and relay functions of the Tor process. Thus you may find that you are unable to browse as soon as your Tor goes into hibernation, signaled by this entry in the log:. The solution is to run two Tor processes - one relay and one client, each with its own config.
One way to do this if you are starting from a working relay setup is as follows:. Exonerator is a web service that can check if an IP address was a relay at a given time. We can also provide a signed letter if needed.
Each Tor relay has an exit policy that specifies what sort of outbound connections are allowed or refused from that relay. The exit policies are propagated to Tor clients via the directory, so clients will automatically avoid picking exit relays that would refuse to exit to their intended destination. This way each relay can decide the services, hosts, and networks it wants to allow connections to, based on abuse potential and its own situation.
The default exit policy allows access to many popular services e. You can change your exit policy by editing your torrc file. If you want to avoid most if not all abuse potential, set it to "reject : ". This setting means that your relay will be used for relaying traffic inside the Tor network, but not for connections to external websites or other services. If you do allow any exit connections, make sure name resolution works that is, your computer can resolve Internet addresses correctly.
Tor can handle relays with dynamic IP addresses just fine. Just leave the "Address" line in your torrc blank, and Tor will guess. The simplest example is an attacker who owns a small number of Tor relays. There are also some downsides to running a Tor relay. It is an open research question whether the benefits outweigh the risks. A lot of that depends on the attacks you are most worried about.
See portforward. If your relay is running on a internal net, you need to setup port forwarding. Forwarding TCP connections is system dependent but the firewalled-clients FAQ entry offers some examples on how to do this. You may have to change "eth0" if you have a different external interface the one connected to the Internet.
BandwidthRate is the maximum long-term bandwidth allowed bytes per second. For example, you might want to choose "BandwidthRate 10 MBytes" for 10 megabytes per second a fast connection , or "BandwidthRate KBytes" for kilobytes per second a decent cable connection. The minimum BandwidthRate setting is 75 kilobytes per second. BandwidthBurst is a pool of bytes used to fulfill requests during short periods of traffic above BandwidthRate but still keeps the average over a long period to BandwidthRate.
For example, if you choose "BandwidthBurst KBytes" and also use that for your BandwidthRate, then you will never use more than kilobytes per second; but if you choose a higher BandwidthBurst like 5 MBytes , it will allow more bytes through until the pool is empty. Otherwise, you could drop many packets during periods of maximum bandwidth usage - you may need to experiment with which values make your connection comfortable.
Then set BandwidthBurst to the same as BandwidthRate. Linux-based Tor nodes have another option at their disposal: they can prioritize Tor traffic below other traffic on their machine, so that their own personal traffic is not impacted by Tor load.
Additionally, there are hibernation options where you can tell Tor to only serve a certain amount of bandwidth per time period such as GB per month. These are covered in the hibernation entry below. When browsing an Onion Service, Tor Browser displays different onion icons in the address bar indicating the security of the current webpage. An onion with a red slash means:. An onion with caution sign means:. A list of our Onion Services is available at onion. Onion services allow people to browse but also to publish anonymously, including publishing anonymous websites.
Onion services are also relied on for metadata-free chat and file sharing, safer interaction between journalists and their sources like with SecureDrop or OnionShare , safer software updates, and more secure ways to reach popular websites like Facebook. These services use the special-use top level domain TLD. When accessing a website that uses an onion service, Tor Browser will show at the URL bar an icon of an onion displaying the state of your connection: secure and using an onion service.
Websites that are only accessible over Tor are called "onions" and end in the TLD. You can access these websites by using Tor Browser. The addresses must be shared with you by the website host, as onions are not indexed in search engines in the typical way that vanilla websites are. When you click on ". An authenticated onion service is an onion service that requires you to provide an authentication token in this case, a private key before accessing the service.
You can get the access credentials from the onion service operator. Reach out to the operator and request access. Learn more about how to use onion authentication in Tor Browser. If you want to create an onion service with client authentication, please see the Client Authorization in the Community portal. Vidalia is no longer maintained or supported.
A large portion of the features Vidalia offered have now been integrated into Tor Browser itself. You can read all about that on our Trademark faq page. A list of all of our software projects can be found on our projects page. We do take some safe measurements of how the network functions, which you can check out at Tor Metrics.
We are so sorry, but you have been infected with malware. The Tor Project did not create this malware. But please consider that our software is used every day for a wide variety of purposes by human rights activists, journalists, domestic violence survivors, whistleblowers, law enforcement officers, and many others.
Unfortunately, the protection that our software can provide to these groups of people can also be abused by criminals and malware authors. The Tor Project does not support or condone the use of our software for malicious purposes.
We do not recommend using Tor with BitTorrent. For further details, please see our blog post on the subject. Tor is funded by a number of different sponsors including US federal agencies, private foundations, and individual donors. Check out a list of all our sponsors and a series of blog posts on our financial reports. We feel that talking openly about our sponsors and funding model is the best way to maintain trust with our community.
We are always seeking more diversity in our funding sources, especially from foundations and individuals. Tor is designed to defend human rights and privacy by preventing anyone from censoring things, even us. Thank you for your support! You can find more information about donating on our donor FAQ. Please see our community page for how to get involved! For sharing files over Tor, OnionShare is a good option.
OnionShare is an open source tool for securely and anonymously sending and receiving files using Tor onion services. It works by starting a web server directly on your computer and making it accessible as an unguessable Tor web address that others can load in Tor Browser to download files from you, or upload files to you. Many exit nodes are configured to block certain types of file sharing traffic, such as BitTorrent. BitTorrent in particular is not anonymous over Tor.
Right now the path length is hard-coded at 3 plus the number of nodes in your path that are sensitive. Also, using paths longer than 3 could harm anonymity, first because it makes denial of security attacks easier, and second because it could act as an identifier if only a small number of users have the same path length as you.
There is nothing the Tor developers can do to trace Tor users. Tor relies on the support of users and volunteers around the world to help us improve our software and resources, so your feedback is extremely valuable to us and to all Tor users. First, check if the bug is already known. We track all Tor Browser related issues at Tor Browser issue tracker. Issues related to our websites should be filed under the Web issue tracker. The more specific your subject line is e. If none of these languages works for you, please write in any language you feel comfortable with, but keep in mind it will take us a bit longer to answer as we will need help with translation to understand it.
You can always leave comments on the blog post related to the issue or feedback you want to report. If there is not a blog post related to your issue, please contact us another way. We may not respond right away, but we do check the backlog and will get back to you when we can. For reporting issues or feedback using email lists, we recommend that you do so on the one that is related to what you would like to report. A complete directory of our mailing lists can be found here. For feedback or issues related to Tor Browser, Tor network or other projects developed by Tor: tor-talk.
For feedback or issues related to our websites: ux. For feedback or issues related to running a Tor relay: tor-relays. For feedback on content related to Tor Browser Manual or Support website: tor-community-team. If you want to encrypt your mail, you can get the GPG public key for the list by contacting tor-security-sendkey lists.
Here is the fingerprint:. The tor-project channel is where Tor people discuss and coordinate daily Tor work. It has fewer members than tor and is more focused on the work at hand. You are also welcome to join this channel.
To access tor-project, your nickname nick must be registered and verified. Then, to complete the registration and ultimately gain access to the tor-project channel, your nickname must be verified. Look for the word verify and log in there. It may appear that nothing has happened.
Look at the top of the page, and there will be a column called Account. You can toggle back and forth between channels by clicking on the different channel names at the top left of the IRC window. If your nick is already being used, you will get a message from the system and you should choose another nick. After a few seconds, you will automatically enter tor, which is a chatroom with Tor developers, relay operators and other community members. There are some random people in tor as well.
You can ask questions in the empty bar at the bottom of the screen. People may be able to answer right away, or there may be a bit of a delay some people are listed on the channel but are away from their keyboards and record channel activities to read later.
If you want to chat with someone specific, start your comment with their nick and they will typically receive a notification that someone is trying to contact them. For this reason, and because many people end up preferring it anyway, you should also consider using an IRC client. Yes, deb. Note: The symbol refers to running the code as root.
This means you should have access to a user account with system administration privileges, e. In the past they have not been reliably updated. That means you could be missing stability and security fixes. Instead, please use Tor Debian repository. The Tor Project maintains its own Debian package repository. To enable all package managers using the libapt-pkg library to access metadata and packages available in sources accessible over https Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure.
If you want to try experimental packages, add these in addition to the lines from above Note, use whatever is the current experimental version instead of 0. We provide a Debian package to help you keep our signing key current. It is recommended you use it. Install it with the following commands:. Note: The symbol refers to be running the code as root. That means you should have access to a user account with system administration privileges, e.
Criminals can already do bad things. They can steal cell phones, use them, and throw them in a ditch; they can crack into computers in Korea or Brazil and use them to launch abusive activities; they can use spyware, viruses, and other techniques to take control of literally millions of Windows machines around the world.
Tor aims to provide protection for ordinary people who want to follow the law. Only criminals have privacy right now, and we need to fix that. Criminals and other bad people have the motivation to learn how to get good anonymity, and many have the motivation to pay well to achieve it.
Being able to steal and reuse the identities of innocent victims identity theft makes it even easier. This is the worst of all possible worlds. So yes, criminals can use Tor, but they already have better options, and it seems unlikely that taking Tor away from the world will stop them from doing their bad things. At the same time, Tor and other privacy measures can fight identity theft, physical crimes like stalking, and so on.
Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks typically rely on having a group of thousands of computers all sending floods of traffic to a victim. So ordinary DDoS attacks are not possible over Tor. So in general, attackers who control enough bandwidth to launch an effective DDoS attack can do it just fine without Tor. Spammers can use Tor to connect to open HTTP proxies and from there to SMTP servers ; to connect to badly written mail-sending CGI scripts; and to control their botnets — that is, to covertly communicate with armies of compromised computers that deliver the spam.
This is a shame, but notice that spammers are already doing great without Tor. Not much, in the grand scheme of things. Of course, like all privacy-oriented networks on the net, it attracts its share of jerks. Abuse complaints may come in a variety of forms. For example:. Some hosting providers are friendlier than others when it comes to Tor exits. For a listing see the good and bad ISPs wiki. For a complete set of template responses to different abuse complaint types, see the collection of templates.
You can also proactively reduce the amount of abuse you get by following these tips for running an exit node with minimal harassment and running a reduced exit policy. If you have a spare IP not used for other activities, you might consider running your Tor relay on it. A collection of templates for successfully responding to ISPs is collected here. Sometimes jerks make use of Tor to troll IRC channels. This abuse results in IP-specific temporary bans "klines" in IRC lingo , as the network operators try to keep the troll off of their network.
In reality, this is not the case — many such trolls routinely make use of the literally millions of open proxies and compromised computers around the Internet. The IRC networks are fighting a losing battle of trying to block all these nodes, and an entire cottage industry of blacklists and counter-trolls has sprung up based on this flawed security model not unlike the antivirus industry. The Tor network is just a drop in the bucket here. On the other hand, from the viewpoint of IRC server operators, security is not an all-or-nothing thing.
By responding quickly to trolls or any other social attack, it may be possible to make the attack scenario less attractive to the attacker. And most individual IP addresses do equate to individual humans, on any given IRC network at any given time. The exceptions include NAT gateways which may be allocated access as special cases. But the real answer is to implement application-level auth systems, to let in well-behaving users and keep out badly-behaving users.
This needs to be based on some property of the human such as a password they know , not some property of the way their packets are transported. Of course, not all IRC networks are trying to ban Tor nodes. After all, quite a few people use Tor to IRC in privacy in order to carry on legitimate communications without tying them to their real-world identity. Each IRC network needs to decide for itself if blocking a few more of the millions of IPs that bad people can use is worth losing the contributions from the well-behaved Tor users.
If you explain the problem, and they conclude that Tor ought to be blocked, you may want to consider moving to a network that is more open to free speech. Maybe inviting them to tor on irc. Finally, if you become aware of an IRC network that seems to be blocking Tor, or a single Tor exit node, please put that information on The Tor IRC block tracker so that others can share. At least one IRC network consults that page to unblock exit nodes that have been blocked inadvertently.
There are some situations where it makes sense to block anonymous users for an Internet service. But in many cases, there are easier solutions that can solve your problem while still allowing users to access your website securely. For example, you might have certain areas of the site, or certain privileges like posting, available only to people who are registered. This way you can have multi-tiered access and not have to ban every aspect of your service.
For example, the Freenode IRC network had a problem with a coordinated group of abusers joining channels and subtly taking over the conversation; but when they labeled all users coming from Tor nodes as "anonymous users," removing the ability of the abusers to blend in, the abusers moved back to using their open proxies and bot networks.
Second, consider that hundreds of thousands of people use Tor every day simply for good data hygiene — for example, to protect against data-gathering advertising companies while going about their normal activities. Some Tor users may be legitimately connecting to your service right now to carry on normal activities. You need to decide whether banning the Tor network is worth losing the contributions of these users, as well as potential future legitimate users.
At this point, you should also ask yourself what you do about other services that aggregate many users behind a few IP addresses. Tor is not so different from AOL in this respect. Lastly, please remember that Tor relays have individual exit policies. Many Tor relays do not allow exiting connections at all. Many of those that do allow some exit connections might already disallow connections to your service.
When you go about banning nodes, you should parse the exit policies and only block the ones that allow these connections; and you should keep in mind that exit policies can change as well as the overall list of nodes in the network. If you really want to do this, we provide a Tor exit relay list or a DNS-based list you can query.
Some system administrators block ranges of IP addresses because of official policy or some abuse pattern, but some have also asked about allowing Tor exit relays because they want to permit access to their systems only using Tor. These scripts are usable for allowlisting as well. Some fans have suggested that we redesign Tor to include a backdoor. There are two problems with this idea.
First, it technically weakens the system too far. Having a central way to link users to their activities is a gaping hole for all sorts of attackers; and the policy mechanisms needed to ensure correct handling of this responsibility are enormous and unsolved. This ultimately means that it is the responsibility of site owners to protect themselves against compromise and security issues that can come from anywhere. This is just part of signing up for the benefits of the Internet.
You must be prepared to secure yourself against the bad elements, wherever they may come from. Tracking and increased surveillance are not the answer to preventing abuse. Traditional police techniques can still be very effective against Tor, such as investigating means, motive, and opportunity, interviewing suspects, writing style analysis, technical analysis of the content itself, sting operations, keyboard taps, and other physical investigations.
The Tor Project is also happy to work with everyone including law enforcement groups to train them how to use the Tor software to safely conduct investigations or anonymized activities online. The Tor Project does not host, control, nor have the ability to discover the owner or location of a. The name you see ending in. Onion services are designed to protect both the user and service provider from discovering who they are and where they are from.
The design of onion services means the owner and location of the. Traditional police techniques can still be very effective against them, such as interviewing suspects, writing style analysis, technical analysis of the content itself, sting operations, keyboard taps, and other physical investigations. We do not view links you report. We take abuse seriously. Activists and law enforcement use Tor to investigate abuse and help support survivors.
We work with them to help them understand how Tor can help their work. In some cases, technological mistakes are being made and we help to correct them. Our refusal to build backdoors and censorship into Tor is not because of a lack of concern.
We refuse to weaken Tor because it would harm efforts to combat child abuse and human trafficking in the physical world, while removing safe spaces for victims online. Meanwhile, criminals would still have access to botnets, stolen phones, hacked hosting accounts, the postal system, couriers, corrupt officials, and whatever technology emerges to trade content. They are early adopters of technology.
In the face of this, it is dangerous for policymakers to assume that blocking and filtering is sufficient. We are more interested in helping efforts to halt and prevent child abuse than helping politicians score points with constituents by hiding it. Finally, it is important to consider the world that children will encounter as adults when enacting policy in their name. Will they thank us if they are unable to voice their opinions safely as adults?
What if they are trying to expose a failure of the state to protect other children? If you need to check if a certain IP address was acting as a Tor exit node at a certain date and time, you can use the ExoneraTor tool to query the historic Tor relay lists and get an answer. No, but we can see what fraction of directories reported them, and then we can extrapolate the total number in the network.
We put in the assumption that the average client makes 10 such requests per day. We simply divide directory requests by 10 and consider the result as the number of users. Another way of looking at it, is that we assume that each request represents a client that stays online for one tenth of a day, so 2 hours and 24 minutes.
Average number of concurrent users, estimated from data collected over a day. No, the relays that report these statistics aggregate requests by country of origin and over a period of 24 hours. The statistics we would need to gather for the number of users per hour would be too detailed and might put users at risk. Then we count those users as one. The directories resolve IP addresses to country codes and report these numbers in aggregate form. This is one of the reasons why tor ships with a GeoIP database.
Very few bridges report data on transports or IP versions yet, and by default we consider requests to use the default OR protocol and IPv4. Once more bridges report these data, the numbers will become more accurate. Relays and bridges report some of the data in hour intervals which may end at any time of the day. And after such an interval is over relays and bridges might take another 18 hours to report the data. We cut off the last two days from the graphs, because we want to avoid that the last data point in a graph indicates a recent trend change which is in fact just an artifact of the algorithm.
Please find the following tarball for more details:. We also use histories that only contain bytes written to answer directory requests, which is more precise than using general byte histories. We wrote a 13 page long technical report explaining the reasons for retiring the old approach. We run an anomaly-based censorship-detection system that looks at estimated user numbers over a series of days and predicts the user number in the next days.
If the actual number is higher or lower, this might indicate a possible censorship event or release of censorship. For more details, see our technical report. Download Tor Browser to experience real private browsing without tracking, surveillance, or censorship. To advance human rights and freedoms by creating and deploying free and open source anonymity and privacy technologies, supporting their unrestricted availability and use, and furthering their scientific and popular understanding.
Sign up. Trademark, copyright notices, and rules for use by third parties can be found in our FAQ. How can we help? Get in Touch Chat with us live! Join us on IRC. Use Tor Browser and software specifically configured for Tor. Use HTTPS versions of websites Tor will encrypt your traffic to and within the Tor network, but the encryption of your traffic to the final destination website depends upon on that website.
Edit this page - Suggest Feedback - Permalink. Which platforms is Tor Browser available for? Our website is blocked by a censor. Can Tor Browser help users access our website? When I use Tor Browser, will anyone be able to tell which websites I visit?
About Tor What is Tor? The name "Tor" can refer to several different components. Why is it called Tor? Does Tor remove personal information from the data my application sends? How is Tor different from other proxies? Can I distribute Tor? What programs can I use with Tor?
Is there a backdoor in Tor? There is absolutely no backdoor in Tor. For Windows users: If you run Windows, download Gpg4win and run its installer. After importing the key, you can save it to a file identifying it by its fingerprint here : gpg --output. Verifying the signature To verify the signature of the package you downloaded, you will need to download the corresponding ". For Windows users: gpgv --keyring. Workaround using a public key If you encounter errors you cannot fix, feel free to download and use this public key instead.
How do I install Tor Browser? How do I uninstall Tor Browser? How do I update Tor Browser? What are the most common issues with the latest stable version of Tor Browser? Are there any paid versions of Tor Browser? You can report fake Tor Browsers on frontdesk torproject. How can I make Tor run faster? Is Tor Browser slower than other browsers?
Can I set Tor Browser as my default browser? Can I use Tor with a browser besides Tor Browser? Is it safe to run Tor Browser and another browser at the same time? Does using Tor Browser protect other applications on my computer? Can I run multiple instances of Tor Browser? Why does my Tor Browser say something about Firefox not working? Why is Tor Browser built from Firefox and not some other browser? How can I export and import bookmarks in Tor Browser?
The desktop is usually a good spot, but any place that is easy to remember will work. Click the Save button. The Export Bookmarks File window will close. Close the Library window. Click the Open button. The Import Bookmarks File window will close. If you wish to backup Choose Backup A new window opens and you have to choose the location to save the file. The file has a. If you wish to restore Choose Restore and then select the bookmark file you wish to restore.
Click okay to the pop up box that appears and hurray, you just restored your backup bookmark. Import data from another browser Bookmarks can be transferred from Firefox to Tor Browser. How do I view Tor Browser message log? What are grey bars on resized Tor Browser window? A website I am trying to reach is blocking access over Tor. Something like this might do the trick: "Hi! A website bank, email provider, etc. My antivirus or malware protection is blocking me from accessing Tor Browser.
Next, exclude the following processes: For Windows firefox. Why does Google show up in foreign languages? What search engine comes with Tor Browser and how does it protect my privacy? Why did my search engine switch to DuckDuckGo? Is there a way to change the IP address that Tor Browser assigns me for a particular site? New Identity This option is useful if you want to prevent your subsequent browser activity from being linkable to what you were doing before.
New Tor Circuit for this Site This option is useful if the exit relay you are using is unable to connect to the website you require, or is not loading it properly. Does running Tor Browser make me a relay? Why is the first IP address in my relay circuit always the same? Does Tor Browser use a different circuit for each website?
Tor Messenger Does Tor Project make an application for private chat? What happened to Orfox? How do I run Tor on Windows Phone? Can I run Tor on an iOS device? Who is the Guardian Project? Can I run Tor on an Android device? To use GetTor via email.
To use GetTor via Twitter. Connecting To Tor "Proxy server is refusing connection" error Proxy server errors can occur for a variety of reasons. You may try one or more of the following activities, in case you encounter this error: If you have an antivirus, it may be interfering with the Tor service.
Disable the antivirus and restart the browser. You should not have moved the Tor Browser folder from its original location to a different location. If you did this, revert the change. You should also check the port that you are connecting with. Try a different port from the one currently in use, such as or When all else fails, reinstall the browser. This time, make sure to install Tor Browser in a new directory, not over a previously installed browser.
I cannot reach X. Discarding this circuit. Please try connecting with bridges, and that should fix the problem. Common log error 3: Failed to complete TLS handshake Common log error 4: Clock skew Tor requires an accurate clock to work: please check your time, timezone, and date settings. Censorship What is a bridge? Bridge relays are Tor relays that are not listed in the public Tor directory. How do I download Tor Browser if the torproject. The button will turn green to indicate that Tor is on.
When both buttons are green, you see the data that is visible to observers when you are using both tools. Operators My relay is picking the wrong IP address. Why do I get portscanned more often when I run a Tor relay? What type of relays are most needed? The exit relay is the most needed relay type but it also comes with the highest legal exposure and risk and you should NOT run them from your home. If you are looking to run a relay with minimal effort, fast guard relays are also very useful Followed by bridges.
What is the BadExit flag? How do I keep the same key? How do I decide if I should run a relay? Why does my relay write more bytes onto the network than it reads? But there are a few exceptions: If you open your DirPort, then Tor clients will ask you for a copy of the directory. Why is my Tor relay using so much memory? You can tell Tor to use this malloc implementation instead:. If you update to OpenSSL 1. See the MaxAdvertisedBandwidth option in the man page.
How stable does my relay need to be? The directories notice this quickly and stop advertising the relay. If you are uncomfortable allowing people to exit from your relay, you can set it up to only allow connections to other Tor relays. Your relay will passively estimate and advertise its recent bandwidth capacity, so high-bandwidth relays will attract more users than low-bandwidth ones.
Therefore, having low-bandwidth relays is useful too. Should I install Tor from my package manager, or build from source? Your ulimit -n gets set to high enough for Tor to keep open all the connections it needs. An init script is included so that Tor runs at boot. Tor runs with --verify-config , so that most problems with your config file get caught. Tor can bind to low level ports, then drop privileges.
How should I configure the outgoing filters on my relay? Should I run an exit relay from home? How do I run an obfs4 bridge? They are not reliably updated. If you use them, you will miss important stability and security fixes. How do I run an exit relay on Debian? How do I run a middle or guard relay on Debian? How do offline ed identity keys work? Fine-tune your Operational Security.
Many experts see OpSec as a significant vulnerability for Tor users. By this, we mean ensuring that key identifying information such as payment details, IP addresses, MAC addresses, and your OS are shielded and not transmitted at any point. And it also means making extra sure that your passwords are fit for purpose. Resist the urge to stock up on extensions. The Firefox-based Tor browser can become vulnerable due to toxic add-ons.
So try to keep your browser setup as clean as possible. This service offers military-grade AES encryption, a kill switch, and no leaks. It operates out of Panama — a privacy-friendly country, allowing NordVPN to have a strict no-logging policy. While you can achieve the highest degree of security by combining Tor and VPN, both can be used individually.
The Tor vs VPN discussion has many talking points, but here are some of the main ones. Tor protects what the user is doing while inside the Tor browser and not activities outside it. Top VPN providers are great for your online security. The success of their business depends on patching out any vulnerabilities quickly and effectively.
Tools like NordVPN have advanced features good enough for hackers or political activists in countries like China. Nevertheless, while top VPNs are much more secure, they act as a hub for your data. Meanwhile, Tor disperses your data across volunteer relays. In practice, however, no-log VPNs carry little of your data, whereas the Tor relay network also has vulnerabilities. VPNs generally have much faster connections. Tor was not built with connection speed in mind.
Your connection goes through a series of volunteer relays, as opposed to the hard-metal servers of VPN providers. These relays are often much less capable of dealing with a lot of traffic than VPN servers. Furthermore, routing with Tor is random and much less efficient.
Typically, your connection goes through several relays, which is always a detriment to performance. With VPNs, you can choose which servers you connect to, resulting in more control and better speeds. To illustrate, we performed some speed tests. The server chosen by the online speed test when using Tor is in Accra, meaning our Tor connection is going through somewhere in that area a good illustration of random and inefficient routing :.
Here is the speed test using NordVPN. For fairness, we connected through a VPN server in Germany and chose the same speed test server in Accra:. As you can see, NordVPN is superior to Tor according to every metric: ping, download speed, and upload speed. Support for devices varies from one VPN to another. They also offer add-ons for Chrome and Firefox , which is irrelevant for this comparison.
Tor is essentially good for one purpose: browsing censored websites. VPNs come in free versions and paid versions, but the free ones have all sorts of issues. There are limits to the safety of Tor Browser. While it is certainly great as a free tool, the technical characteristics of Tor mean it can never be completely secure.
However, it is also safer to use a VPN instead of Tor assuming you choose a secure provider. Your email address will not be published. Post Comment. I have used it once but I do not feel comfortable. Probably because I am used to the normal traditional browsers.
I have got this concern about Tor. I got it all wrong. Tor will actually allow you to surf the internet privately and secured. While others say Tor should just be used on its own? Hi Mark, Using Tor on its own is fine in most cases, however, as a freeware project it does have some vulnerabilities. Using Tor with VPN fixes these vulnerabilities. While your point is completely correct, but you are just mentioning a single VPN service, that reduces your credibility.
I use Tor. But in all its great and should be one of the browsers you should have in your PC. But your ISP, employers, etc. Simply click the button below — the coupon will be activated immediately! Is Tor browser safe to use? Mikaela Bray. Want to make Tor more secure?
Кроме этого, такой браузер обеспечивает максимальную анонимность, которая обеспечивается луковичной маршрутизацией. В результате, если правоохранительные органы заходят отследить покупателя запрещенных товаров, они столкнуться с рядом трудностей.
Определить местонахождения покупателя невозможно. Можно с полной уверенностью сказать, что это абсолютно безопасно. Ведь, чтобы войти на гидру, пользователь не указывает никаких своих личных данных. Для покупок используется:. Кроме этого, ТОР-браузер не сохраняет историю и файлы Cookie, которые можно использовать в качестве идентификации посещенных ресурсов.
Для особых параноиков рекомендуется задействовать VPN-сервисы, которые только запутают правоохранительные органы в случае попытки найти покупателя. Пользователи, которые по тем или иным причинам не могут установить TOR-Браузер могут воспользоваться специальным интернет-шлюзом. Он представляет собой мост, соединяющий обычный интернет […]. Each time it hits a node, it losses a layer of encryption. Besides encrypting your traffic, Tor will also hide your IP address, replacing it with the address of its servers.
The website you access will only see the IP address of the exit node. To put it simply, no. So, it might be possible to assume that countries that ban or make VPNs illegal have the same stance on Tor. Of course, if you ever use Tor to access illegal content child pornography, drug trades, contract killer websites , you can get in serious trouble with the law.
But not all the content on the deep web is of that nature. Security researchers actually found at least Tor nodes that were snooping on user traffic and exposing devices to malware. And the nodes were discovered over a period of just 72 days. Who knows how many are actually out there. However, the main problem with decentralization is that any cybercriminal can set up a Tor node if they want to. Over the course of a few months, he collected sensitive data — specifically login credentials for around 1, accounts.
Obviously, that includes government agencies too. Tor devs themselves made it public that government officials seized control of Tor servers through Operation Onymous. According to it, the university was actually able to see that the student in question accessed Tor with their WiFi network a few hours before the threats were received.
Well, the main issue with that is those regimes will be specifically targeting Tor traffic. Security researchers actually worked for the federal government to find a way to break Tor. Now, that normally would make sense since VPNs work the same way — the server decrypts the traffic to forward it to the web.
But unlike a VPN, anyone can set up a Tor node like we already mentioned. And according to Tor documentation , the exit node can actually see the contents of your message. Another exchange showed that a dev found a vulnerability that would essentially de-anonymize Tor users.
The dev suggested keeping the vulnerability an internal matter, yet Roger Dindgledine went ahead and told government agents about the vulnerability after just two days. So you need to have other people using the network so they blend together. It just means you have extra hassle to deal with when using Tor. If the FBI wants to, they can spy on you without needing any warrants. True, this ruling came into effect after the FBI shut down a child pornography ring, which is definitely a good thing.
So yeah, according to the law at least in the US , if you decide to use Tor to protect your privacy, you should actually expect government agencies to start spying on you. Well, there are only around 6, servers to support them. Simply not enough to go around, so Tor users end up quickly overloading the network. Plus, Tor bounces your traffic between multiple servers, which further contributes to the slow speeds. That, and the Tor devs themselves say using the Bittorrent protocol over Tor is not a good idea.
Because your government might suddenly decide to block access to the Tor network — like Venezuela , China , and Turkey already did. Really, all they have to do is check the current list of Tor nodes , and use routers and firewalls to block them. Specifically websites that use Cloudflare security software since it has a firewall option that blocks Tor traffic. Unfortunately, a lot of websites use Cloudflare.
All in all, pretty popular platforms. Slow speeds and IP leaks aside, those websites and many more show up on the list of services that block the Tor network. The main advantage is that you get to hide your IP address before connecting to the Tor network.
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